martes, 18 de diciembre de 2012

Recordando a Mevlanâ Rûmî

Añadir leyenda

Compte rendu synthétisé de la journée du 02 décembre 2012


Le 2 décembre 2012, à Paris, l' association " Les Amis d'Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch" a proposé à trois spécialistes de présenter trois éclairages sur le poète mystique de langue persane, Rûmî, et l‘influence de son œuvre aujourd’hui. Voici une synthèse de cet après-midi chaleureux où un public nombreux et motivé est venu écouter Fra Alberto Ambrosio, Eric Geoffroy et Leili Anvar.

Dominicain, spécialiste du soufisme ottoman, Fra Ambrosio rappelle tout d’abord que les 325 confréries soufies furent interdites par Attatürk en 1925 en Turquie. En 1926 le couvent de Konya est transformé en musée, mais les confréries seront persécutées jusqu’en 1940, et particulièrement l’ordre des Naqchbandis. En 1950 la République turque fait de Rûmî ( ob.1273) l’un des deux héros turcs, avec Yunus Emré. Les soufis font alors peu à peu surface par le biais d’associations et de fondations.Selon Fra Ambrosio il faut considérer l’héritage de Rûmî à plusieurs niveaux. Au niveau zéro c’est l’exploitation commerciale de Rûmî et des derviches tourneurs. Puis le niveau des associations, qui s’adressent au grand public et enfin le troisième niveau, celui de la tradition mevlevie, destinée aux disciples qui s’engagent dans cette voie. Les maîtres spirituels de la voie sont les descendants, par un lien plus ou moins solide, de Mevalana, via les Tchelebi.Bien différenciés, ces niveaux peuvent être poreux cependant. Le soufisme culturel reste prédominant, actuellement l’héritage de Rûmî passe par des œuvres littéraires ou artistiques qui ont leur importance.

L’Unicité de l’êtreIslamologue, enseignant aux universités de Strasbourg, Barcelone et Louvain, Eric Geoffroy a eu la chance de connaître Eva de Vitray dans les années 80. Selon lui, dans son introduction au Mathnavi, l’œuvre majeure de Rûmî, Eva de Vitray, sa traductice du persan au français avec Mortazavi, met en avant la wahdat el wujud : « L’unicité de l’être est la charpente de l’exposé de Rûmî par Eva » a souligné Eric Geoffroy. Les créatures et le Créateur ne font qu’Un, comme le dit Rûmî : « notre Mathnavi est la boutique de l’Un ».Cette notion de l’Unicité lui a permis de comparer la pensée de Rûmî avec celle d’Ibn Arabî ( 1165-1241), que le poète aurait rencontré à Damas, par l’intermédiaire d’El Qonawi, beau-fils d’Ibn Arabî et ami de Rûmî.Pour le Cheikh el Akbar, le seul être existant est Dieu et la création n’a pas d’être propre si ce n’est l’être divin qui lui est prêté. Donc, tout est relié, nous ne sommes pas autonomes, et la création, comme les théophanies, est en perpétuel renouvellement ( tajdid el haqq).Chez Rûmî, l’accent est mis sur l’illusion de la permanence du monde, comme dans le bouddhisme. Continuité et multiplicité ne sont qu’apparentes et l’unité est intégrée par le dépassement de la dualité, par le moyen de l’amour humain, métaphore de la soif métaphysique.L’amour est une ruse divine ( hila) qui exprime la nostalgie de l’exil et la mort est conçue comme une délivrance, ou des noces, qu’elle soit mort physique ou fana, extinction, dépassement du moi.Opposé au ‘ilm el kalam, Rûmî se rapproche de Hallaj. Il donne la primauté à la supra-raison et met en doute le sens rationnel.

Lyrisme mystiqueAprès un intermède musical proposé par Béatrice Lalanne, de Terra Maïre, qui a interprété a capella et en langue d’Oc un chant de troubadour du XIIème siècle, Leïli Anvar, maître de conférence à l’Inalco et chroniqueuse dans l’émission « Racines du ciel » sur France Culture, avec Frédéric Lenoir, a fait porter sa réflexion sur les raisons de lire Rûmî aujourd’hui. Elle a d’abord rappelé que l’objectivité officiellement exigée par l’université, pour qui l’objet d’étude doit être séparé du chercheur, est un non sens quand il s’agit de Rûmî, par exemple. « Si la littérature ne nous change pas, ce n’est pas la peine de l’étudier », dit Leïli Anvar.C’est après la rencontre avec Chams de Tabriz que Rûmî devient un poète lyrique. Pour lui, la poésie tient lieu de révélation, il y a une puissance alchimique de la parole.Puis elle cite ensuite deux contes du Mathnavi, celle du marchand et son perroquet d’abord, cet oiseau étant porteur d’un symbolisme profond, comme le rossignol représente le poète, celui de l’âme et aussi du maître spirituel.L’histoire du chasseur de serpent qui la terrifiait dans son enfance ( elle est franco-iranienne) parle, dit-elle, du moi impérieux, qu’il convient de combattre ( c’est le grand djihad) dans l’islam, et le soufisme met l’accent sur ce combat. Il faut être un Moïse ( un homme de loi) pour tuer ce serpent ou plutôt ce dragon.Leïli Anvar a tenu à faire la différence entre le moi qui se constitue en tant qu’identité et l’égo qui se fait des illusions sur sa propre importance. Il convient d’être témoin ( chahid) de ce que l’on dit.La logique recherchée dans le soufisme est de dépasser les antagonismes : c’est oui et non à la fois….Le Masnavi en persan, c’est l’essence de l’essence du Coran.

Propos rapportés synthétisés par Clara Murner, les Amis d’Eva de Vitray

Rumi's "Wedding Night"

by Ibrahim Gamard, 12/98 (revised 12/00, 11/02, 12/08)

The night of December 17, is the (solar) anniversary of the death of Jalâluddîn Rûmî, who died in 1273 in Konya, Turkey (which for many centuries had been known as "Rûm," the Anatolian peninsula long ruled by "Rome," meaning the Eastern Roman, and then Byzantine, Empire). The observance of the anniversary of a sufi saint is called (in Arabic), `urs, which means "wedding," because the saint is believed to have attained "union" (or utmost nearness together with other saints and the prophets) with God, the Only Beloved. The `urs of a sufi saint is normally celebrated according to the Islamic lunar calendar (according to which Rumi died on 5 Jumâdî II 672 AH-- occurring next on the evening preceding April 15, 2013, then April 5, 2014, then March 25, 2015). However, due to the Westernization of the calendar in Turkey, Rumi's `urs has been celebrated on the equivalent solar calendar date, not only in Turkey, but in many Western countries.

In Turkey, the night of Rumi's `urs is called Sheb-i Arus or "Wedding Night" (the correct Persian would be "Shab-é `Arûsî," except that this is an unfamiliar term in Iran, and the celebration of the anniversaries of the deaths of sufi saints has not been practiced there for a number of centuries).

Many sufi gatherings of various kinds will be mentioning the name of this saint on this night, praying that the blessings of God be upon his soul, and celebrating his "Wedding Night" by the "Whirling Prayer Ceremony" (Samâ`) of the Mevlevi ("Whirling Dervish") Sufi order, recitation of his poetry, and sufi prayer chanting, zikru 'llâh-- "remembrance of God."

The following is a summary and partial translation from the hagiography of Rumi, "Manâqibu 'l-`ârifîn" (The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God, chapter 3, section 579, written in Persian by Shamsuddîn Ahmad Aflâkî (died, 1353): Aflâkî relates (pp. 587-590) that when Mawlânâ ("our master," in Arabic) was on his death bed, he quoted the following verse from the Qur'an: "Do as you are commanded, (for) you will find me, God willing, among those who are patiently submitting" (Q. 37:102). He asked for a basin of water, in which he put his feet, and from time to time rubbed water on his chest and forehead and recited some poetry. Then some minstrels came in and sang this quatrain of Rumi's, in bitterness of the coming separation:

(My) heart bears suspicion toward you, (when) far away from you,
That (is) also because of its weakness (which) it bears, (when) far away from you.
There is) bitterness in the mouth of every bitter-hearted person;
Sugar itself bears a grudge toward you, (when) far away from you.

del bar tô gomân-é bad bar-ad dûr az tô
w-ân nêz ze-Za`f-é khwad bar-ad dûr az tô
talkhê ba-dahân-é har delê Safrâ'î
khwad bar tô shakar Hasad bar-ad dûr az tô

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 of Rumi's Quatrain No. 1533 (c) by Ibrahim Gamard and Ravan Farhadi, from "The Quatrains of Rumi," Sufi Dari Books, 2008, p. 159

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After this poem was sung, those who were present wailed and wept. Mawlânâ responded, "Yes, it is (just) as (my) friends are saying. But if the house is being destroyed, what is the benefit (of wailing and weeping)? . . . My friends are drawing me (to) this side, and Hazrat-é Mawlânâ Shamsudîn [Shams-é Tabrîz] is calling me (to) that side." He quoted the verse, "Respond to God's summoner and believe in Him" (Qur'an 46:31). He then told his son, Sultân Walad to go lay his head down to get some rest, for the latter had been sleepless and sobbing constantly. When his son had put his head down, Mawlânâ composed his last poem to console him:

Go lay (your) head on the pillow (and sleep). Leave me (to be) alone; leave me (to be) ruined, night-wandering, and afflicted.

I am alone with a wave of passion, from night until day. If you wish, come with mercy; if you wish, go (and) be harsh.

Escape from me, so that you may not also fall into affliction! Choose the path of safety (and) shun the path of affliction.

With the tears of (my) eyes, I have crawled into the corner of sorrow. Grind the mill hundreds of times upon the tears of my eyes.

For me there is an oppressor who has a heart like a hard rock. He kills, (and) nobody tells him to arrange payment of the blood- price!1

For the king of the beautiful-faced ones, loyalty is not necessary. (But) you be patient and faithful, O sallow-faced lover!

It is a pain for which there is no remedy except to die. So how can I ask that this pain be cured?

Last night I dreamed of an elder in the lane of Love: he gestured to me with (his) hand, (meaning) "Make (your) aim (to come) to me."

If there is a dragon on the road, Love is like an emerald (which will blind it); drive away the dragon with the (green) flash of this emerald!

Stop, since I am losing myself!2 If you are (a man) of abundant knowledge, recite the History of so-and-so3 (and) admonish so and so!

Persian text below)4

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--Translation of Rumi's Ghazal No. 2039 from the Persian by Ibrahim Gamard, 12/98; revised 12/00 (with gratitude for Arberry's 1979 British translation) (c) Ibrahim Gamard (translation, footnotes, & transliteration)
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Sometime during the night after composing this poem, Mawlânâ died. It was the night of December 17, 1273, Sunday, the fifth of the Islamic lunar month, Jumâda 'l-âkhir, A.H. 672.

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Summary and translation from Aflâkî by Ibrahim Gamard (This account was also translated by O'Kane, "The Feats of the 'Knowers of God," 2002, pp. 403-04

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Prayer for Mawlânâ:

A disciple of Mawlânâ's named Ikhtiyâru 'd-dîn "...saw in a dream that God-- may He be glorified and exalted-- gave a prayer [du`â] for the deceased [Mawlânâ Jalaluddin Rumi] with this expression:

"O Allah, be merciful and kind toward my chief, my reliance, my shaykh, the place of the spirit in my body, the provision of my today and tomorrow, and Our Master [Mawlânâ], the Glory [Jalâl] of the Truth [ul-Haqq] and the Religion [ud-Dîn]! And upon his fathers, his ancestors, his mothers, his children, his successors, and his followers until the Day of Resurrection!"

allâhumma 'arHam wa taHannan `alà sayyidî wa sanadî wa shaykhî
wa makâni 'r-rûHi min jasadî wa Zakhîrati yawmî wa ghadî wa
mawlânâ jalâlu 'l-Haqq wa 'd-dîn wa `alà âbâ'i-hi wa ajdâdi-hi wa
ummahâti-hi wa awlâdi-hi wa khulafâ'i-hi wa atbâ`i-hi ilà yawmi
'l-qiyâmah.

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--from Aflaki, "The Glorious Talents and Abilities of the Knowers of God" [Manâqibu 'l-`ârifîn], I, p. 380 (Chapter 3, section 311), translated and transliterated by Ibrahim Gamard. (See also the translation by John O'Kane, "The Feats of the Knowers of God," 2002, p. 262.)

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Final Mevlevi Prayer [golbâng] Recited in Turkish on Mawlânâ's "Wedding Night":

"May this noble occasion be favorable and blessed, may good things be revealed, may evils be (kept) distant! May the lordly Wedding Night, the arrival to the Glorious Private Palace (of God),
the holy right of the great lord (Mevlânâ) in regard to (receiving) the favor of an exalted (spiritual) station, and the abundant favors of the exalted spiritual ones (and) in regard to all the followers-- (all) be complete and universal! For the sake of the (blessed) words [dam] of our Venerable Master, the secret [sirr] of Shams-é Tabrîz, the nobility and generosity of Imâm `Ali, let us say: 'Hû!

Vakt-i sherif hayrola; hayIrlar fethola; sherler def'ola; leyle-i arûs-I rabbânî, vuslat-I halvet-serây-i sübhânî, hakk-I akdes-i Hudâvendgârîde an-be ân vesîle-i i'tilâ-yI makaam ve fuyûzât-I rûhâniyyet-i aliyyeleri cümle peyrevânI hakkInda shâmil ü âmmola. Dem-i Hazret-i Mevlânâ, sIrr-I Shems-i Tebrîzî, kerem-i Imâm-I Alî, Hû diyelim: Hûûûûûû!

--from Golpinarli, "Mevlevi âdâb ve ErkanI," 1963, p. 104, translated by Ibrahim Gamard

May the blessings of the `Urs of Hazret-i Mevlana Jalaluddin Muhammed Rumi be upon all those who have been increased in love of God through his mystical poetry!

Ibrahim Gamard

(See also "On The Day of My Death" and "If Wheat Comes Up From My Grave" "in the "Odes" section of this website.)


Notes

1blood-price: payment which the murdered person's family can ask in court from the family of the murderer, in lieu of execution.

2losing myself [bê-khwodî]: also means bereft of self, beside myself, bereft of my senses, enraptured.

3(recite the history of so-and-so: a history book by some well-known person. This final line may be understood as aluding to silence, a common theme of Rumi's final lines in many ghazals: "If you possess a lot of knowledge, then talk about it; my journey is into the great Silence that begins at the moment of death."
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4raw sar be-neh ba-bâlîn, tan-hâ ma-râ rahâ kon
tark-é man-é kharâb-é shab-gard-é mubtalâ kon
mâ-yêm-o mawj-é sawdâ, shab tâ ba-rôz tan-hâ
khwâh-î be-y-â ba-bakhshâ, khwâh-î be-raw jafâ kon

az man gorêz! tâ tô ham dar balâ na-y-oft-î
be-g'zîn rah-é salâmat, tark-é rah-é balâ kon
mâ-yêm-o âb-é dîda, dar konj-é gham khazîda
bar âb-é dîda-yé mâ Sad jây-é âseyâ kon

khîra-koshê-st mâ-râ, dâr-ad delê chô khârâ
be-k'sh-ad kas-ash na-gôy-ad: "tadbîr-é khûn-bahâ kon"
bar shâh-é khôb-rôy-ân wâjib wafâ na-bâsh-ad
ay zard-rôy-é âshiq, tô Sabr kon, wafâ kon

dardê-st ghayr-e mordan ân-râ dawâ na-bâsh-ad
pas man che-gûna gôy-am k-în dard-râ dawâ kon?!
dar khwâb-é dôsh pîrê dar kôy-é `ishq dîd-am
bâ dast ishârat-am kard ke `azm-é sôy-é mâ kon

gar azhdahâ-st bar rah `ishqî-st chôn zumurrud
az barq-é în zumurrud hîn, daf`-é azhdahâ kon
bas kon ke bê-khwod-am man w-ar tô honar-afzây-î
târîkh-é bu `alî gô tanbih-é bu 'l-`alâ kon



(meter: XXoX oXX XXoX oXX)



viernes, 14 de diciembre de 2012

Ravi Shankar y el encuentro con Japón

El gran Maestro Ravi Shankar, nos ha dejado

El gran intérprete de sitar Pandit Ravi Shankar dejó este mundo el 11 de diciembre.


Shankar Family Statement:


It is with heavy hearts we write to inform you that Pandit Ravi Shankar, husband, father, and musical soul, passed away today, December 11th, 2012.

As you all know, his health has been fragile for the past several years and on Thursday he underwent a surgery that could have potentially given him a new lease of life.

The surgeons and doctors - Dr. Robert Brunst, Dr. Scott Eisman, and Dr. Martin Charlat - all did tremendous work and the procedure was successful. However, the condition of his lungs just made the recovery difficult. We were at his side when he passed away.

We know that you all feel our loss with us, and we thank you for all of your prayers and good wishes through this difficult time. Although it is a time for sorrow and sadness, it is also a time for all of us to give thanks and to be grateful that we were able to have him as a part of our lives. His spirit and his legacy will live on forever in our hearts and in his music.